Database management is the system for managing information that supports the organization’s business processes. It includes data storage, distributing it to applications and users making changes as needed, monitoring changes in the data and preventing it from getting damaged by unexpected failures. It is an integral part of the overall infrastructure of a business which supports decision-making, corporate growth, and compliance with laws such as the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with other companies developed the first database systems. They developed into information management systems (IMS) which allowed for the storage and retrieve large amounts data for a broad range of purposes, from calculating inventory to supporting complicated financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database is a collection of tables that store data according to an established pattern, such as one-to many relationships. It utilizes primary keys to identify records and permit cross-references between tables. Each table is comprised of a set of attributes or fields that provide information about data entities. The most widely used type of database today is a relational model, developed by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This design is based on normalizing data to make it more user-friendly. It also makes it simpler to update data, avoiding the need to change many sections of the database.

The majority of DBMSs are able to support multiple types of databases through different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level deals with costs, scalability, and other operational issues, such as the design of the database’s physical storage. The external level determines how the database is represented in user interfaces and other applications. It could comprise a combination of various external views (based on the different data models) and may also include virtual tables that are created from data that is generic to enhance performance.